Insights concerns uncovering inner truths and unravelling cause and effect.  Examples include

market segmentation (as part of a segmentation, targeting, and positioning strategy);

Quantifying price elasticity so as to optimise profit;

Quantifying response to advertising so as to maximise ROI;

Quantifying the impact of external factors such as interest rates on sales.

Techniques employed include multiple regression, cluster analysis, and factor analysis.

Skills employed include pattern recognition, broad general knowledge, and wide industry experience.